A lone man walks through a field of brambles as the sun rises, a small pouch at his side. This field was old-growth forest before being clear cut a century or more ago; it was then farmland for 50 years before becoming unfarmable wasteland; over the last 15 years, enough soil fertility has returned enough to support the brambles. As the man walks, every so often, he leans down, takes out a small trowel, and pops a nut in the ground–hickory and oak nuts, primarily, but others like butternut, chestnut, and walnut are also sometimes planted. He is a man on a very quiet and very personal mission–and his goal is simple: to return hardwoods to the cleared lands of Western Pennsylvania. Sometimes, he carries roots instead: the roots of goldenseal and ginseng, plants once common here and are now about impossible to find. This man plants trees that he will not likely ever harvest from, he walks lands that others have abandoned, and he donates his time to this simple, meditative practice. Who is this man? This man is my father, and his work is for generations–human and otherwise–beyond himself.
The question our role as humans is in the ecosystem and how spiritual practices and permaculture design allows us to better enact that role is an important one. In this post, I’ll explore the idea of an earth care ethic through active regeneration of the land.
Pick up the Garbage and Get Out
I’ve heard many in the druid community say that the best thing you can do for any piece of land is to “pick up the garbage and get the hell out.” And there are certainly times and places where I think this approach is the wisest–the ecosystem is fragile and nature is doing her own healing. Or, this is a good approach if there are people already dedicated to the cause of healing particular parts of land, like state forests or conservation areas, and you haven’t been asked to help in that existing work. But what about everywhere else? What about the lands that aren’t under protected or conservation status? What about lands that lay fallow and are struggling to come back from a lot of abuse? I’m starting to disagree that this “pick up the garbage and get out” is the right approach in every case and in fact, in many cases.
I’ll use Western Pennsylvania as an example, and I’m sure readers in other places can think of their own local examples. At one point in Pennsylvania’s history, about 100 years ago, the forests were almost entirely gone (see photo, right). Today’s logging looks harmless by comparison (and is ecologically much more sound, but still extremely disruptive). Trees that were 15 and 20 feet across were cut down during this time, and other resources the land held were also sought, such as coal. Since that time, regrowth (ecological succession) has been successful in some places and the forests that have returned are now mostly protected by being a state forest, wild area, or game lands (although game lands still allow fracking and logging, so I’m skeptical about this “protection”). Other forests never returned, and instead went to farmland, subdivisions, cities, airports, or something else. Even for the forests that managed to return to forest, the logging and clearcutting significantly and permanently alters the what is growing there long-term. Hardwoods like hickory, walnut, chestnut, or oak, especially have had difficulty regrowing because they grow much slower than other trees like black cherry, beech, or birch. Forest herbs on the floor also have difficulty recovering or spreading quickly, especially those who spread slowly by root or rhizome. Much of the land no longer holds the fertility or nutrients needed to support a forest. Other land still hasn’t grown back, and was farmland till the fertility in the soil was removed to the point where little is growing there–only pioneer species working to bring nutrients back into the soil.
Ecological Succession is the process of nature regrowing from a damaged state. What it regrows into is largely a matter of the ecosystem and region–around here in Western Pennsylvania, the final state of succession is a forest. In the Great Plains states, it is, as you may suspect, grass plains and savanna. The damaged state could have been caused by a fire, flood or other natural occurrence, but in our era, its predominantly caused by human destruction, as in the case of the forests of Pennsylvania, or more recently, mountaintop removal in West Virginia, or boney dumps in Pennsylvania. Sometimes, ecological succession fails to happen almost entirely, even over a period of decades or centuries, because the land has been too damaged by human activity to begin that healing process (of which I’ll be speaking more about next week).
As an example of this can be seen through the chestnut tree. Prior to the chestnut blight of the early 20th century, chestnuts made up anywhere from 5-15% of most forests in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania decided to cut down *all* of the chestnuts (even non-blighted ones) to try to stop the spread of disease, essentially preventing evolution from happening–the chestnut trees could not evolve blight resistance if they weren’t given a chance to do so. The result is that very, very few chestnuts remain–hence why my father works to plant them.
Approaches to Human Intervention in Ecological Succession
The idea of human intervention on the landscape, in a positive direction, is not one well known in present culture. The conservationist approach, developed as a response to things like the clear-cutting that took place in Pennsylvania a 100 years ago, has done much to help re-introduce and protect forests and wildlife–and for the places that are protected, the protection generally works. I visited the Pennsylvania Wilds (a protected area spanning 1.5 million acres of forests in North-Central PA) two weeks ago and I was amazed to read of the story of conservation there on that land.
But I do think that the conservation mindset creates some challenges. The conservation mindset is rooted in the idea that when white settlers arrived here, they found a pristine landscape, untouched by human hands. The goal of conservation, then, is to get the land back to that state and to not let anyone touch it again (because human touch is seen as problematic, and in most cases today, it is). Every day, I’m thankful that early conservations decided to set aside millions of acres of forests in my home state. Some conservationist efforts do work towards restoring native ecosystems or at least creating balanced ones. And that’s all good work.
But at the same time, the situation is radically different now than in 1492–more species are here and are naturalized, animal species patterns are different (which is critical–see this video of the wolf changing rivers at Yellowstone), and I’m not sure that simple restoration to the way things were and then leaving it alone is always the best approach. I’m also not sure that leaving this regenerative work only in the hands of the “experts” is the best either because it disallows collective responsibility and action. But it certainly is an understandable response, given what has been going on for the last 150 or so years.
Another approach, one I have heard expressed in druid retreats and by various practitioners earth-based spiritual traditions is “letting the land alone to heal.” But I don’t think this approach is entirely ethical either. For one, leaving a forest to regrow on its own will never re-introduce species that have been largely lost to our forests, like chestnut, because there aren’t enough of them left to spread. It will never re-introduce ginseng, goldenseal, or ramps, all of which have been over-harvested to critically endangered stats–and all of which are slow-spreading root crops. It won’t address the damage caused by erosion or soil loss–eventually, given a long time, the earth can heal from these things. However, even while ecological succession is slowly occurring on nature’s own timeline, other damages and pressures may be happening, like acid rain, mine runoff, poaching, and more. The two real issues with the idea of “letting the land alone to heal” and that, first and foremost, is that it removes our personal and collective responsibility for the damage that was done. And second, just as humans caused quick destruction, we can also help jump start and guide the healing process more quickly. This kind of work tremendously deepens our spiritual and physical connection with those lands.
The Power of Human Touch: Positive Human Intervention, Spiritual Interaction, and Regeneration
White mythology suggests that when settlers came to what was to become the United States and Canada, they found pristine wilderness untouched by human hands. The truth is, the lands such as those that would later make up the USA were never “untouched by human hands” as is commonly thought. Yet, the nature of the touch was much, much different. In fact, M. Kat Anderson, in a book called Tending the Wild provides a rich body of evidence that Native Americans tended the land extensively to maintain balance and abundance. Anderson learned from the Native elders she was interviewing in California that some native plants have literally evolved with human intervention and they need humans to survive and thrive—this puts an entirely new perspective on the idea of earth care and stewardship.
If you think this idea that the land evolved with human touch is a bit radical, consider domesticated vegetables or animals. This idea is really no different than farm animals or even annual vegetables you plant in your garden, who also have evolved with humans and depend on them for protection and nurturing. Anderson’s work breaks down the distinction between what is cultivated and what is wilderness–all lands were tended in some way.
One of the things I recently learned from Walker Kirby, a man teaching us at my Permaulculture Design Certificate who was coming out of the work of John Young’s Wilderness Awareness School, was the fact that “wilderness” as a term was quite negative in the native cultures of the northeast USA. Wilderness was it was land that had been abandoned or left untended by its people–and that was a tragic thing. This is such a different view that most humans have in industrialized nations–we have seen so much damage, we just want to leave nature alone and protect the wilderness. But in creating “wilderness” we are, essentially, abandoning our responsibility to tend that land; its not really different than abandoning elderly relatives, children, or animals in our care.
The other piece to all of this is, of course, that this damage we currently have is largely human caused. Humans have some substantial Karmic debt that we can work to help payoff by directly taking action. Some humans are still causing active destruction; many more are complicit and passively supporting that destruction passively through their choices, purchases, and inaction. They turn their head and shut their eyes because they do not want to see. But for those who walk an earth-based spiritual path focused on rebuilding a relationship with nature and those who are awake and alive–we are seeing. We can help make right what was damaged, and by doing so, we rekindle the ancient bond between humanity and the land. Many of our ancestors further participated in this destruction (as their livelihoods, but still, they were participating in it), and we carry the that karmic debt as well. My grandfathers and great grandfathers worked in the coal mines and the steel mills because those were the jobs available here–and the environmental costs of those mines and mills are still very much present on the landscape of Western Pennsylvania today. Who better than their granddaughter or great granddaughter to go out and help regenerate the lands after the mills and mines closed down but their scars remain? All of us, in some way or another, are directly energetically connected to that damage which we see on the landscape–and all of us can do something, even something small, to work to heal.
Anderson’s Tending the Wild gives us a radically different model for what humanity’s relationship with nature can look like. It shows that humans have been active tenders of our landscapes, engaging in regeneration and healing, and co-evolving with nature. I believe it is this same mindset that my father has for bringing in more hardwoods–it is a desire to heal the land. Imagine if there millions and millions of us, all across the lands of this great planet, actively healing the land as part of our spiritual practice. What a difference we could make–in both inner and outer worlds.
Many alternative communities, whether they are druids or other healers use some form of energy healing. In the druid traditions that I practice, our seasonal celebrations raise positive energy through ritual and song and send it into the land for a blessing. Energetically, we are doing the work of regeneration–but this invisible line exists that we don’t cross; we often don’t physically do much beyond that. Because we are afraid to do harm. Because we don’t feel we have the knowledge of how to do anything else. What exactly can we do? What exactly should we do? How do we know we can do it better? How do we know we won’t cause harm? Where should this work be done? How should it be done?
Part of the fear of interacting with nature, especially in a physically regenerative capacity, I think stems from the fact that we want to do no more harm. But I would argue that not doing anything is worse than the potential of doing harm in many cases. Anderson writes in her introduction to Tending the Wild, “The elders challenged the notion I had grown up with—that one should respect nature by leaving it alone—by showing me that we learn respect through the demands put on us by the great responsibility of using a plant or animal” (xvi). The work of physical land healing can bring us the power to heal the land and the responsibility of doing so.
The Way Forward toward Land Healing as a Spiritual Practice
As my last few posts on the blog describe, this kind of work directly aligns with the tools and practices of permauclture design. Through permaculture, we have many examples of aiding in ecological succession faster and helping nature in this healing process. With careful observation, planning, and knowledge, we can actively help ecological succession along, actively help our lands heal. This work takes a lot of knowledge, dedication, and commitment–but it is so worth doing and worth doing well. Through many years of study and practice you’ll have more effective strategies to address larger problems, you can begin now, in this very moment.
For those interested in starting the work, perhaps start by enacting the principle of “observe and interact” from permaculture design. Go into the places that are in most need of healing that we can reach. The damaged lands, the degraded soils, those places abandoned by others. Lawns are a good place to start, as are abandoned fields, abandoned lots on your city streets, logged areas. Learn about that land, learn about the soil, look at what is already growing and learn about why it is growing there, don’t be immediately angry if you find out its “invasive” (many “invasive” plants are healers, in their own way) and think about how you might help ecological succession along. And more than anything else, listen and observe, with your inner and outer senses, and see what the land has to tell you.
I realize I’ve been doing this work for a very long time (as is evidenced by this early post), but the regenerative work I was doing was almost entirely focused on my homestead. I knew I was regenerating the land there, doing good healing work. Selling my homestead and being “landless” during this transition to a new state has shifted my eyes to the broader landscape. I realized that its not just about what I do on a small site, but what I do in many different places and spaces. I think that’s the work this post is trying to do–explore the broader call to heal the land beyond what we generally “own.” Its trying to cast a wide net, seeing the land differently, realizing that all of the land is ours to tend, if not legally so, than certainly, ethically so.
I’ll be spending more time in upcoming posts on different ways of approaching how physical land regeneration as a spiritual practice may happen. For now, I wanted to share my thoughts about why–as druids, as people who care, as whoever you are as you are reading this–we could consider this as part of our spiritual and ethical work in the world. Perhaps sit with the idea, like a hot cup of tea made from pioneer plants in a field in need of regeneration, and consider whether you are called to walk this particular path.
If mystics do not tend the land – to which we belong – what will become of us all? This is a Beautiful, heartfelt read. I especially enjoyed the story of your father. He is a wise elder.
Thank you, Crowing Crone :). That’s the big question, isn’t it? What will become of us all?
yes. and we share in the task of responding to that question with healing and awareness.
I think awareness raising and putting knowledge of how to actually DO this stuff is really critical. Its a lot of what I’ve been trying to do here–learn something valuable and share it widely. The more empowered people are to act, the more action we will see, and the more healing our lands will experience :). Its all good!
absolutely. I, for one, appreciate what you are doing.
Reblogged this on hocuspocus13 and commented:
Reblogged this on Laura Bruno's Blog and commented:
One of the best posts I’ve ever read, and I agree, 110%! Blessed Be *and* be the blessing — so important:
“realizing that all of the land is ours to tend, if not legally so, than certainly, ethically so.”
Thank you so much, Laura! 🙂
I love that statement–blessed be and be the blessing! yeah!
I think I love your father.
Thank you for this exceptional post. It is important to remind ourselves that most of North America was a well minded garden when the colonists arrived. The same was true for Australia, Mew Zealand, and South America. Coevolution had been going on for over forty thousand years in Australia! The idea of wilderness was an attempt to simply erase Indigenous people from the land. Now, perhaps more than ever, human hands are needed to nurture the Earth. Blessings to you and your father.
Thank you, Michael. I wasn’t aware of the histories of Australia, New Zealand or South America, but what you share makes so much sense based on the research I’ve been doing here. We *all* are needed to nurture the earth.
I’m in love with this process, as ND want to begin in my very own piece of land. I adore the earth and nature. Thank you for opening my mind to some possibilities healing our land. Blesdings
Hi Terri! The healing herbs often heal our lands and our bodies–talk about stacking functions! Goldenrod, New England aster, mountain mint, so many more….such good allies! Thanks for your comment!
I love the whole idea of helping out and hope to join y’all in the implementation. I also thank you for reminding us that there are good humans in this world.
Thanks Linda! I think there are a lot of good humans who want to act but are unsure! And I’d love to hear about your own healing work!
Reblogged this on PANTHEIST HERITAGE and commented:
This is such a wonderful article.
A wonderful article, thank you.
Re-blogged on https://pantheistheritage.wordpress.com
Thank you for the Reblog!
Beautiful lesson Willowcrow. I hope that it is OK that I shared this on my FB page. I learned quite a bit here and wanted to pass it on.
Yes, feel free to share widely :). Thank you!
Really still following a Great Path. First found this book The Botany of Desire by Michael Pollan. And its a odd take on desire in the eyes of four chosen plants and their history with us. Apple is the first. And it talked all about our hand in branch life 100% its not us vs them. us and them its all just us <3 😀 love this article so much Dana !!!
Thanks Sandra! I’ve read Michael Pollan’s Botany of Desire–a fantastic book. Have you read Stephen Harrod Buhner’s Sacred Plant Medicine and Secret Teachings of Plants? Both are fantastic 🙂
This is Sandra LOL
Very fascinating. The beginning, with your father bit also this desire to be actively healing a landscape reminds me strongly of Jean Giono’s “The Man Who Planted Trees”. It is one of the most poignant stories of what one person can do to slowly, gently, and patiently head the land and the human society that dwells upon it.
I’ll have to check out that book–thanks for the suggestion! I haven’t read it yet 🙂
Oops, I forgo too mention that it is available as as beautiful animated film from the National Film Board of Canada. My favourite film ever.
Reblogged this on sylvaingrandcerf and commented:
Une lecture impressionnante à”l’homme qui plantait des arbres” et qui pose des bonnes questions en tant que notre rôle à jouer dans la guérison de la terre.
Thank you for the reblog 🙂
A lovely post. For quite a number of years I’ve felt that the chestnut tree is special to me and my heart aches when I see the little stump sprouts that still come up and die. But we do have American chestnut trees here in northeastern PA–I know of one big enough to bear nuts. But alas they’re not fertile, as it needs 2 trees to cross-pollinate. Anyway… my question is, how did you learn all this? Can you recommend beginner books on permaculture? This seems like applied ecology, and that’s of great interest to me.
Oh, chestnut. I love, love, love the chestnut!
How to learn? Lots of learning, lots of ways. Start with a book called Gaia’s Garden by Toby Hemenway–for permaculture, at least :). Once you’ve read that, let me know and I can suggest some others :).
I shared this on my FB page…I too talked about ecological succession and pioneer plants in my Summer EarthDeva Oracle Coloring book. Thank you for this timely and well written piece. Blessed Be.
That sounds like a wonderful coloring book! 🙂 Thanks for sharing!
Hey this is great stuff ! a wonderfull read and inspiring to just go and sit with nature and not have fear around doing more harm.
Hi everyone. I am Dana’s father and am honored that my daughter has noted my
efforts. Planting trees is a part of making our environment better. I would be happy if there were a multitude of people contributing…
I encourage you…
Plant a tree.
Thank you, Dad, for commenting! So many people are inspired by you 🙂
I think this was one of my favorite posts of yours! The image of your father sowing seeds throughout the landscape is inspiring. I want to do something similar by reintroducing understory plants to the woodlot on my property.
Thank you :). This is one of my favorite posts I think I’ve ever written. I’m excited that Dad was inspiring for you–he’ll be happy to hear that!
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Thankyou so much for this post. I am a Wiccan priestess working towards this exact process. And I look forward to future news from your journey.
You are most welcome! There’s a lot on this topic on the blog :).